top of page

glossary

example; species of wood worked with; janka hardness (pounds-force); color 

(click on image to learn more)

acer-spp-ambrosia.jpg

ambrosia maple; 

Acer (indistinct)

700-950 lbf

color is white, with some reddish-brown hues

IMG_9324.jpg

american beech; 

Fagus grandiflora

1,300 lbf

color is typically pale cream, sometimes with pink or brown hue, or golden when prepared w/ steam

prunus-serotina.jpg

american cherry;

Prunus serotina

950 lbf

color of heartwood is light pinkish brown when freshly cut, darkening to medium reddish brown with time and upon exposure to light

american-elm.jpg

american elm; 

Ulmus americana

830 lbf

color of heartwood is light to medium reddish brown

american-hornbeam-293x400.jpg

american hornbeam;

Carpinus caroliniana

1,780 lbf

color of sapwood is nearly white, while heartwood is pale yellowish brown

ash-200x200.jpg

american white ash;

Fraxinus americana

1,320 lbf

color of sapwood can be very wide, and tends to be a beige or light brown, while color of heartwood is light to medium brown

argentine-osage-orange1.jpg

argentine osage orange;

Macular tinctoria

2,380 lbf

color is golden to bright yellow, which ages to a darker medium brown with time: primarily due to exposure to UV light

black-locust.jpg

black locust;

Robinia pseudoacacia

1,700 lbf

color can range from a pale greenish-yellow to darker brown and tends to darken to russet brown with age

acer-negundo.jpg

box elder;

Acer negundo

720 lbf

color of sapwood is pale white, sometimes with a yellow/green hue, while heartwood is a grayish/yellowish brown, frequently with red or pink streaks

black-walnut-400x400.jpg

black walnut;

Juglans nigra

1,010 lbf

color ranges from a lighter pale brown to dark chocolate brown with darker brown streaks, and can sometimes have a grey, purple, or reddish cast

myrtle-wt.jpg

california bay laurel;

Umbellulari a california

1,270 lbf

color of heartwood can be variable, from light orangish brown to gray or olive, sometimes with darker streaks present

northern-catalpa.jpg

catalpa;

Catalpa spp. (C.speciosa and C.bignonioides)

550 lbf

color of heartwood can range from neutral grayish tan to a richer golden brown

chestnut-oak.jpg

chestnut oak;

Quercus prints

1,130 lbf

color is light to medium brown, though there can be a fair amount of variation

Unknown.jpeg

chinese chestnut;

Castanea mollissima

540 lbf

color is light to medium brown, which darkens to reddish-brown with age, whereas sapwood is light white to light brown in color

cypress-400x400.jpg

cypress; 

Taxodium distichum

510 lbf

color tends to be a light, yellowish brown, while sapwood is nearly white

dogwood-gw-400x400.jpg

dogwood;

Cornus florida

2,150 lbf

color of narrow heartwood is reddish-brown, while wide sapwood is cream to pale pinkish in color

douglas-fir1-360x400.jpg

Douglas fir; 

Pseudotsuga menziesii

620 lbf

color is usually light brown with hint of red and/or yellow, with darker growth rings, however, can vary based upon age and location

eastern-hemlock-296x400.jpg

eastern hemlock;

Tsuga canadensis

500 lbf

color of heartwood is light reddish brown, while sapwood may be slightly lighter in color

carpathian-elm-burl.jpg

english elm (burl); 

Ulmus procera

810 lbf

color of heartwood is light to medium reddish brown

goncalo-alves1-400x400.jpg

Goncalo alves (tigerwood); 

Astronium spp. (A. graveolens and A. fraxinifolium)

2,170 lbf

color of heartwood is typically a medium reddish brown with irregularly spaced streaks of dark brown to black and tends to darken with age

honey-locust-gw-400x400.jpg

honey locust;

Gleditsia triacanthos

1,580 lbf

color of heartwood is a medium to light reddish brown, while wide sapwood is a light yellow, clearly distinguished from the heartwood

ipe-400x400.jpg

ipe;

Handroanthus spp.

3,510 lbf

color varies from reddish brown to yellowish-olive brown or darker blackish brown, sometimes with contrasting darker brown/black strips

live-oak-293x400.jpg

live oak;

Quercus virginiana

 2,680 lbf

color is light medium brown, though there can be a fair amount of variation

longleaf-pine-296x400.jpg

longleaf pine (heart pine); 

Pinus palustris

870 lbf

color of sapwood is yellowish white, while heartwood is a reddish-brown

madrone-400x400.jpg

madrone;

Arbutus menziesii

1,460 lbf

color tends to be cream or pinkish crown, but can also have dark red patches

northern-white-cedar-1-298x400.jpg

northern white cedar;

Thuja occidentalis

320 lbf

color of heartwood is pale brown or tan, while the narrow sapwood is nearly white

pecan.jpg

pecan;

Carya illinoinensis

1,820 lbf

color tends to be light to medium brown, with a reddish hue

post-oak-296x400.jpg

post oak; 

Quercus stellata

1,350 lbf

color is light to medium brown, though there can be a fair amount of variation

acer-rubrum.jpg

red maple;

Acer rubrum

 950 lbf

color of sapwood ranges from almost white to a light golden or reddish brown, while the heartwood is a darker reddish brown, and can be seen with curly or quilted grain patterns

rainbow-poplar-gw-320x400.jpg

rainbow poplar (yellow poplar); 

Liriodendron tulipifera

540 lbf

colors of green, purple, black, and red resulting from mineral stains in yellow poplar

quercus-rubra.jpg

red oak; 

Quercus rubra

1,220 lbf

color of sapwood is paler than heartwood, which is a light to medium brown, commonly with a reddish cast, while quartersawn sections display prominent ray fleck patterns

redwood.jpg

redwood;

Sequoia sempervirens

450 lbf

color can range from light pinkish brown to a deep reddish brown

rock-elm-300x400.jpg

rock elm;

Ulmus thomasii

1,320 lbf

color of heartwood is light to medium reddish brown

sassafras-gw-400x400.jpg

sassafras;

Sassafras album

630 lbf

color of heartwood is a medium to light brown, sometimes with orange or olive hue and tends to darken with age, while sapwood is a paler yellowish brown

shagbark-hickory-400x400.jpg

shagbark hickory;

Carya ovata

1,880 lbf

color of heartwood tends to be light to medium brown, with a reddish hue; sapwood is a paler yellowish brown

acer-saccharum.jpg

sugar maple; 

Acer saccharum

1,450 lbf

color of sapwood ranges from nearly white, to an off-white cream color, sometimes with a reddish or golden hue, while the heartwood tends to be a darker reddish brown

red-gum-gw-400x400.jpg

sweetgum;

Liquidambar styraciflua


850 lbf

color of sapwood is whitish to light pink or tan color, and is sometimes referred to as "sapgum" or "sweetgum", and heartwood is gray to reddish brown, and is commonly referred to as "redgum", while heartwood with darker black streaks is called "figured redgum", and quarter sawn pieces have a ribbon-stripe appearance

sycamore-400x400.jpg

sycamore;

Platanus occidentalis

770 lbf 

color is predominantly comprised of the sapwood, with some darker heartwood streaks also found in most boards; the sapwood is white to light tan, while the heartwood is a darker reddish brown, having distinct ray flecks present on quarter sawn surfaces, and giving it a freckled appearance

thuja-plicata.jpg

western red cedar; 

Thuja plicate

350 lbf

color is reddish to pinkish brown, often with random streaks and bands of darker red/brown areas

quercus-alba-fs-1.jpg

white oak;

Quercus alba

1,350 lbf

color of sapwood is paler than heartwood, which is a light to medium brown, and commonly with an olive cast, while quartersawn sections display prominent ray fleck patterns

yellow-poplar.jpg

yellow poplar; 

Liriodendron tulipifera

540 lbf

color is light cream to yellowish brown, with occasional streaks of gray or green

wood: List
bottom of page